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AMERICANA

A Journal of Entomology.

Volume XV (New Series) 1935

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE

J. R. DE LA TORRE-BUENO Editor

CARL G. SIEPMANN G. P. ENGELHARDT

PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 1935

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA

YOL. XV (n.s.)

CONTENTS

Plates I-XVII.

A Study of Medetera aldrichii Wh. (Diptera-Dolichopodidae), a Predator of the Mountain Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus

monticola Hopk., Coleo.-Scolytidae), Donald DeLeon 59

Morphological Studies of the Thorax of the Ant, George S.

Tulloch 93

Revision of the Epistrophe Flies of America North of Mexico

( Diptera, Syrphidae), C. L. Fluke, Jr 1

The Biology and Taxonomy of the Genus Trichiotinus (Scara-

baeidae-Coleoptera ) , Clarence H. Hoffmann 133

VOL. XV (New Series) JANUARY 1935

No. 1

A Journal of Entomology.

PUBLISHED BY THE

BROOKLYN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE J. R. de la TORRE-BUENO, Editor CARL GEO. SIEPMANN GEO. P. ENGELHARDT

Published Quarterly for the Society by the

Science Press Printing Company,

Lime and Green Sts., Lancaster, Pa.

Price of this number, $2.00 Subscription, $4.00 per year

Date of Issue March 1, 1935

Application for entry as second-class matter under the Act of March 3, 1879, made June 15, 1926, at the Postoflice at Lancaster. Pa.

Vol. XV January, 1935 No. 1

REVISION OF THE EPISTROPHE FLIES OF AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO (DIPTERA, SYRPHIDAE)*

C. L. Fluke, Jr.

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, MADISON, WISCONSIN

The genus Epistrophe was originally erected by Walker (Insecta Saundersiana, Dipt. Part 3, 242, 1852) to receive liis new species conjugens (= grossulariae Mg.). In 1923, Curran (Can. Ent. 55: 59) recognized Stenosyrphus Mat. for most of the species now placed in Epistrophe but a year later (Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 15 : 94) recognized Walker’s genus. As a whole the genus is fairly homo- geneous with only a few species that might be confused with Metasyrphus or Melanostoma. It is characterized as follows:

Epistrophe Walker

Lower lobe of squamae without long hairs on the disc, meta- sternum usually bare, abdomen usually slender, the side mar- gins curving under ; otherwise much like Syrphus and Meta- syrphus. Type of genus Syrphus grossulariae Mg.

The face is yellow, with or without a median blackish stripe, on all the species except the males of E. insolitus Osb. and nigri- facies Cur. ; these have entirely black faces. It is necessary, in these two instances, to associate the females with the males in order to

* Acknowledgment is made to Sigma Xi for a research grant which made it possible to examine most of the types which exist in North America.

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ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA Vol. XV, No. i

separate them from Melanostoma, a genus in which the faces of both sexes are entirely black,

Epistrophe is separated from Syrphus by the absence of the hairs on the disc of the squamae, and from Metasyrphns by the curv- ing under of the side margins of the abdomen (see Figs. 2 and 3). The type of the genus (E. grossulariae) is the only species known from North America North of Mexico which has a hairy meta- sternum (see Fig. 1) . Some of the forms of Metasyrphus, especially those belonging to the emarginatus group have bare metasterna so that the rolling of the edges is the only visible character to separate them.

The genus Ischyrosyrphus Bigot is recognized as only a sub- genus of Epistrophe, and I am inclined to believe that even this is not desirable. E. diversifasciatus Knab, which is retained in the genus Epistrophe, has more definite characters, particularly in the wings, to encourage the formation of a new genus, than have either of the two species of Ischyrosyrphus in North America.

Most of the types and important collections occurring in North America have been examined. The genus occurs more commonly in the far West and I wish to thank Mr. J. Wilcox, Mr. R. Latta, and Mr. Chas. Martin for numerous specimens from Oregon, Wash- ington, and other Western States. I wish especially to thank Dr. C. H. Curran for his many specimens and suggestions.

Key to the Species of Epistrophe

1. Abdominal bands separated into spots or no spots present 27

At least one of the principal bands entire (if eyes hairy see

28) 2

2. Metasternum hairy, antennae black 3

Metasternum bare 4

3. Abdominal crossbands yellow or reddish grossularia Mg.

Abdominal crossbands metallic grossulariae-melanis Cur.

4. Antennae entirely yellow, face yellow, ground color on the sides

of the mesonotum often covered with yellow pollen, large

species (11 to 12 mm.) 5

Antennae at least black on the upper sides of the third seg- ment, frequently entirely black ; usually smaller species 10

5. Front coxae and usually the third coxae yellow, face and

cheeks wholly yellow 6

All the coxae blackish or darkened 7

6. Lower third of front of female yellow, second and third ab-

dominal bands nearly straight on their posterior edges (male unknown) terminalis Cur.

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Front of female not yellow except immediately above the antennae, second and third abdominal bands notched in the middle on the posterior margin xanthostoma Will.

7. Pile on the sides of the face black; cheeks black, extending as

high as the anterior month edge imperialis Cur.

Pile on the face all yellow except on the angles near the anten- nae ; cheeks less extensively black 8

8. Arista blackish, abdominal bands broader, go over sides in

nearly full width Metasyrphus nitidicollis Mg.

Arista reddish, abdominal bands narrower, partly obscure on the sides 9

9. Femora of male entirely yellow, scutellar pile of female yel-

low hunteri Cur.

Femora of male black at the base ; scutellar pile of female

black submar ginalis Cur.

10. Face entirety black, the sides usually bronzed isolitus Osb.

Face either entirety yellow or yellow with a black stripe 11

11. Second abdominal tergite without any yellow markings, thorax

of female with two longitudinal white vittae.

diversifasciatus Knab Second abdominal tergite with a pair of yellow spots 12

12. Face yellow, if with an opalescent stripe the first segment of

abdomen largely yellow 13

Face with a black stripe, first abdominal segment black 15

13. Cheeks and oral margin shining black, face with a prominent

tubercle, scutellum black haired, oval species.

imperialis Cur.

Cheeks yellow or at most reddish, tubercle rounded, slender nearly parallel sided species 14

14. Scutellum yellow haired cinctus Fall.

Scutellum black haired cinctellus Zett.

15. Antennae black, third segment may occasionally have a brown-

ish cast lineola Zett.

Antennae at least reddish beneath the third segment 16

16. Venter yellow without distinct black markings 17

Venter with distinct black markings 18

17. Cheeks and wide facial stripe brightly shining black, the stripe

reaching practically to the base of the antennae (female).

insolitus Osb.

Cheeks and face pollinose, the facial stripe narrower and not reaching antennae rectoides Cur.

18. Ventral abdominal markings obscure, elongate longitudinally,

or triangular 19

Ventral markings distinctly transverse, black and yellow 25

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19. Males 20

Females 22

20. Hind femora yellow at the base ( =melanderi Cur.).

conjunctus Osb.

Hind femora largely black or brown, at least at the base 21

21. Facial stripe narrow, reaching only one-half the distance be-

tween tubercle and base of antennae ; ventral markings

obscure rectoides Cur.

Facial stripe broad, one-third the width of the face and reach- ing almost to the base of the antennae; ventral markings

triangular quinquelimbatus Big.

Hind femora black at the base 23

Hind femora yellow at the base 24

Second and third abdominal bands broader, interrupted or

subinterrupted at the middle currani n. sp.

Abdominal bands narrower, no indication of interruption at the middle quinquelinibatus Big.

Venter unicolorous rectoides Cur.

Venter with longitudinal vittae con j act us Osb.

Facial stripe one-third the width of the face, second and third

abdominal bands sub interrupted semiinterruptus n. sp.

Facial stripe much narrower than one-third the width of the face, abdominal bands not subinterrupted, although possibly emarginate 26

Abdominal bands of male do not reach the side ; of female the first pair of spots equal to and usually larger than second pair, first pair separated by less than their width, larger

species (8 to 9 mm.) jolinsoni Cur.

Abdominal bands of male reach the sides; of female first pair of spots usually less in width than the second pair, first pair also separated by more than their width, smaller species (7 to 8 mm.) genualis Will.

27. Eyes pilose ; sometimes minutely so in the female 28

Eyes practically bare; a very few scattered extremely short

hairs may be noticed in some species 40

28. Abdomen almost entirely shining black 29

Abdomen with definite yellow markings 30

29. Pile of thorax yellow, abdomen truncate abruptus Cur.

Pile of thorax black, abdomen not truncate (= monackus Hull) .

nigropilosa Cur.

30. Face without a black stripe, although the oral margin is

black 31

Face with a definite black stripe, or wholly black 34

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

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31. First pair of abdominal spots usually do not attain lateral

margins; four front tibiae reddish 32

The first pair of spots usually attain the lateral margins, apical one-third of the four front tibiae brown, hind femora black except the apical fifth sodalis Will.

32. Pile of thorax almost entirely black, abdominal spots of male

narrow and obscure nigropilosa Cur.

Pile of thorax mostly pale, abdominal spots plainly evident .33

33. Front of female not nearly as wide at antennae as length from

vertex to antennae, metacoxal hairs of both sexes yellow

(= contumax Will.) tarsatus Zett.

Front of female much wider, metacoxal hairs of both sexes black mallochi Cur.

34. Spots on the second abdominal segment very small, entirely

absent in some specimens ; facial stripe triangular, cheeks of

female yellow (= flavosignatus Hull) columbiae Cur.

Spots on the second segment larger and always present, face either entirely black or the stripe not triangular 35

35. Second and third pairs of spots oval, decidedly convex poste-

riorly, or connected 36

Second and third pairs of spots with their sides approximately parallel 38

36. Outer ends of second and third pairs of spots farther from

the bases of the segments than is the median front margin,

never connected in the middle vittafacies Cur.

Outer ends of spots or bands attenuated to the bases of the segments 37

37. Face of male all black, or nearly so, of female yellow with a

broad black diffuse stripe which occupies about one-third the width of the face, front femora of female black on the basal

one-third to one-half nigrifacies Cur.

Face of both sexes yellow with a narrower black stripe ; front femora of female black on the basal one-fifth to one-fourth; spots of female often connected in the middle.

macularis Zett.

38. Pile of the metanotum intermixed with black and tawny hairs

in the male; facial stripe broad, occupying one-third the width of the face, diffuse, pile black in both sexes ; cheeks of

the female brownish garretti Cur.

Pile of the metanotum not intermixed, either black or obscurely reddish brown in the male; facial stripe much less than one-third the width of the face, less diffuse, pile in female

yellow ; cheeks paler, usually reddish yellow 39

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39. Smaller species (9 mm.) principal sternites each with a pair of basal yellow spots; spots on the third tergite occupy about one-fourth the length of the segment mentalis Will.

Larger species (10-11 mm.), sternites with a basal yellow band, spots on third tergite about one-third the length of segment.

vittafacies Cur.

40. Only one definite pair of abdominal spots present, abdomen

constricted at the base of the fourth tergite 41

At least two pairs of abdominal spots present, abdomen not so constricted 43

41. Antennae black; face with a definite black stripe, pile black;

front scarcely pruinose ; abdomen exceedingly slender, spots

on second tergite obscure, peculiarly shaped gracilis Coq.

Antennae black with at least the third segment yellow below, front pollinose, abdomen broader and with definite oval to elongate spots on the second tergite 42

42. Spots on the second tergite reach the side margins.

bimacitlata Lov.

Spots on the second tergite do not reach the side margins.

mediaconstrictus FI.

43. Face with a definite median black stripe connected with the

oral margin or almost wholly black 47

Facial stripe absent, if narrowly present not connected with the oral margin 44

44. A pair of confluent yellow spots before the scutellum, side mar-

gins of the thorax yellowish guttata Fall.

Thorax without yellow spots before the scutellum, side mar- gins of the thorax may or may not be yellowish 45

45. Abdomen slightly oval, the spots oval; side margins of thorax

not yellowish subfasciatus Cur.

Abdomen parallel-sided, spots triangular, side margins of thorax usually yellowish 46

46. Pile of the dorsum of the thorax entirely yellowish (= oronoen-

sis Met.) triangulifer Zett.

Pile of the dorsum of the thorax black along the sides, or all black (obscurely so in the female) tenuis Osb.

47. Face all black, although sometimes bronzed or obscurely yellow

on the sides 48

Face distinctly yellow in large part 49

48. Halteres brownish, second pair of spots do not reach the side

margins arctica Zett.

Halteres yellowish, second pair of spots reach the side mar- gins genicidatus Mq.

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49. Facial stripe triangular, eyes briefly hairy, first pair of spots

of male almost obsolete, western species columbiae Cur.

Facial stripe very little widened near the upper mouth edge,

eyes practically bare, first spots of male definite 50

50. Males 51

Females 58

51. First pair of spots normally narrower than second pair,

usually triangular 52

First pair of spots normally wider than second pair 55

52. First pair of spots oval, thorax dullish 53

First pair of spots decidedly triangular, thorax semi-shining with a dark aeneous cast 54

53. Facial tubercle very little prominent, second and third pairs

of spots do not reach the sides compositarum Ver.

Facial tubercle prominent, somewhat pinched, second and third pairs of spots reach the sides geniculatus Maq.

54. Triangular spots on second segment larger, separated by about

one and one-half their greatest width pullulus Sn.

These spots smaller, separated by nearly three times their greatest width, venter pollinose ( -remotus Cur.).

cherokeenensis Jones

55. First pair of spots normally reach the side margins, cheeks

creamy, thorax brightly shining 56

First pair of spots never reach the side margins 57

56. Pile of face all yellowish or white, first pair of spots nearly

quadrate fisherii Walt.

Pile of face partly black, especially along the eyes; first pair of spots oval, inner ends rounded umb elicit arum Sch.

57. Antennae entirely black, a black stripe or blue area from the

black oral margin reaches across the lower face to the eyes.

albipunctatus Cur.

Third segment of antennae reddish below, sides of face and checks entirety yellow, without a dark area on the jowls.

diver sipunctatus Cur.

58. First pair of abdominal spots large, quadrate, separated by a

very narrow line and touch the base of the segment by their

entire length fisherii Walt.

First pair of spots oval or semi-oval, inner ends rounded, sepa- rated at least by one-half their greatest width 59

59. Facial tubercle prominent, stripe one-third theVidtli of face ...60 Facial tubercle very little prominent, stripe seldom more than

one-fifth as wide as the face 61

60. Halteres brownish ; tubercle of face extremely prominent,

rather large, first pair of spots separated by about one and

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA Vol. XV, No. i

one-half times their greatest width, species of about 8 mm. in

length arctica Zett.

Halteres yellow; tubercle prominent but smaller and not so produced, first pair of spots separated by two times their greatest width, species about 7 mm. in length.

geniculatus Macq.

61. Front entirely shining black midif rons Cur.

Front with a distinct poll i nose band 62

62. First pair of spots normally reach the sides 65

First pair of spots normally are separated from the sides 63

63. Thorax shining 64

Thorax dull compositarum Ver.

64. First pair of spots pruinose on the sides, pile of face black.

geniculatus Mq.

First pair of spots not pruinose on the sides, pile of face yel- low umhellatarum Sell.

65. First pair of spots touch the base of the segment near the

anterior corners umhellatarum Sch.

A distinct space between these spots and the base of the seg- ment 66

66. Pile of thorax entirely yellowish 67

Pile of thorax yellow wdth a few (occasionally only 3 or 4)

black hairs just above the wings 68

67. Arista gradually tapers, no constriction at the base.”

diversipunctatus Cur. “Arista narrower at the base” albipunctatus Cur.

68. Ventral black markings with triangular projections in front.

cherokeenensis Jon.

Ventral black markings without triangular black projections.

pullulus Sn.

1. Epistrophe grossulariae (Mg.) (Fig. 4)

Syrphus grossulariae Meigen 1822, Syst. Besch. 3 : 306 ;

Curran 1922, Can. Ent. 54: 96. (var. melanis.) Syrphus lesuerii 0. S. 1897, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 18 : 143.

Epistrophe conjugens Walker 1856, Ins. Saund. (5), 242. A very easily recognized species by its large size, black antennae, yellowr haired scutellum, broad abdominal bands which reach the sides, black venter, and the hairy metasternum. It is the only Epistrophe, as far as I know, occurring in North America which has hair on the metasternum, although one or two from Europe possess this character. Curran has described a melanic form which is met with quite frequently. It is found generally distributed over

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ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA

the nearctic region and is known over many of the European and Asiatic countries.

2. Epistrophe xanthostoma (Will.) (Fig. 5)

Syrphus xanthostoma Williston 1886, Syrph. N. A. 86.

A large showy and shiny species with broad yellow crossbands which reach the side margins in their full width and are notched posteriorly on the third and fourth tergites; venter unicolor ous; eyes bare ; antennae reddish ; face yellow ; cheeks yellow ; scutellum yellow pilose except the apical margin ; a rather heavy tuft of yel- low pile just above the front coxae; metasternum bare, although some specimens occasionally have one or two hairs present.

This species is readily recognized by the characters given above. Its nearest relative is grossulariae but the color of the antennae and venter will readily separate them. I have met with this species in large numbers in Wisconsin and have reared it on aphids on golden rod. It is the only species of Syrphid I know of in which the egg is spotted with black markings, giving them the general appearance of leafhoppers when noticed on the plants.

It occurs throughout the Eastern United States and Canada and I have seen a specimen from Waha, Idaho (Aldrich).

3. Epistrophe terminalis Cur. (Fig. 6)

Epistrophe terminalis Curran 1924, Ivans. IJniv. Sci. Bid.

15: 98.

An easily recognized species by the entirely yellow face, cheeks, antennae, lower third of front, and legs ; produced oral angles ; shin- ing thorax; and yellow pile of the scutellum. The front is almost entirely shining and the upper edge of the yellow marking has the shape of a shallow inverted Y, with only very narrow, and small side dust spots ; the pile of the thorax is all yellowish. Eyes bare. Length 10 to 11 mm.

The abdominal bands are broad and reach the side margins in their entire width, the first separated into two large spots, the next two gently biconcave in front and biconvex behind. Male unknown.

Described from a single female from Orono, Maine ; 21st of June, 1917, and contained in the C. L. Metcalf collection. The type is at Ottawa, Can.

This species is readily told by the characters given above and is apparently related to xanthostomus Will., but lacks the notches in the second and third abdominal bands.

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4. Epistrophe submar ginalis Cur. (Fig. 7)

Epistrophe submarginalis Curran 1924, Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 15 : 101, fig.

Face yellow, with a narrow brownish cast over the tubercle ; cheeks with a black spot below the eyes ; arista yellowish ; abdomen slightly emarginate, first band interrupted, second and third continuous, all reach the sides but usually incon- spicuously. Length 10 to 11 mm.

Male Face yellow, usually narrowly brownish over the tubercle, but may be entirely yellowish, pollinose on the sides, pile pale yellow; cheeks reddish, with a large indefinite black spot below the eyes; frontal triangle mostly black, heavily pollinose, especially around the orbits, pile black; vertical tri- angle black with black pile ; eyes bare ; antennae yellowish, the first two segments light brown, arista reddish, never black.

Thorax shining aeneous, lightly pollinose on the pleura and sides of the mesonotum, pile all golden or pale yellow ; scutellum yellow, the pile black with yellow hairs along the basal margin.

Legs yellow; basal one-third of the four front femora, the basal half of the hind femora and a broad median band on the hind tibiae black ; hind tarsi infuscated. Wings hyaline, lightly yellowish tinged, the stigma very little darker; squamae and halteres yellow.

Abdomen black ; first tergite narrowly pale on the extreme sides ; second with a pair of large triangularly oval yellow spots which are pointed on their inner ends, reach forward on the sides to the base of the segment ; third and fourth each with a rather broad yellow crossband, the second one almost touching the base of segment in its entire width, a very shallow notch on their fore margins, and a deeper one on their posterior margins, both bands are narrowed posteriorly at the sides and the basal corners reach the bases of the segments; apical mar- gins of the fourth and fifth and the basal corners of the fifth yellow. The crossbands on the third and fourth tergites often have a projection on their front margin instead of a shallow notch. Venter yellow with all pale pile.

Female Quite similar but usually paler, especially the an- tennae, cheeks, sides of mesonotum, and the legs which are all yellow except the coxae and trochanters. The front is shining with brownish to black pile, the side dust spots are very little expanded above and there is usually a black W above the red W. The abdominal bands are narrower, straighter on their posterior edges, and usually reach the sides more distinctly. Occasionally the abdominal bands of the females have a metallic luster to them.

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Described from numerous specimens from Idaho (Aldrich), Washington (Wilcox), Maine (Metcalf), Ontario (Curran), British Columbia (Elliott), Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.

It is one of those species which may be confused as to its generic relationships as dried specimens often show emargination of the abdomen. For this reason it is very closely related to M. nitidicollis Mg. ; but the reddish antennae, the narrower abdominal bands, and smaller size of submarginalis will distinguish it. It is a spring form, collected mostly in May and June.

5. Epistrophe hunteri Cur. (Fig. 8)

Epistrophe liunteri Curran 1924, Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.

15: 171.

Face, antennae, and legs yellow; spots on second tergite large, bands on third and fourth tergites continuous. Length 10 mm.

Male Face yellow, practically without pollen, a small black spot below the eyes, pile sparse, yellow; cheeks yellow with yellow pile ; frontal triangle yellow, a small black triangle just above the antennae, yellow pollinose, the pile black ; eyes bare ; antennae all yellow, the arista reddish.

Thorax shining aeneous, pile all yellow, ground color of the sides of the mesonotum obscurely yellow; scutellum yellow, pile yellow basally, black apically; legs all yellow, only the coxae and trochanters black.

Abdomen subshining black; the margin very narrowly yel- low; first tergite obscurely yellow on the sides and in front; second with a pair of large subtriangular spots which reach forward on the sides of the base ; third with an anteriorly situ- ated yellow band, a small projection on the anterior margin, a notch in the posterior margin, and briefly narrowed on the sides ; fourth with a similar band but situated at the base ; the apical margin rather broadly yellow ; fifth yellow with a median black arch. Venter yellow with yellow pile.

Female Front shining aeneous, considerably narrowed above, the W broadly yellow, and with a wide pollinose cross- band which is narrowly interrupted ; scutellar pile all yellow ; abdominal bands similar to the male but more yellowish on the sides, the first pair of spots more than half as wide as the segment is long.

Described from a male from El Paso, Calif. (Champlain) and a female from Orono, Maine (Metcalf). I feel sure that the female belongs to this species and I am unable to note any differences in

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the male described above from the type which was taken in Mani- toba.

Its closest relative is probably E. submarginalis and undoubtedly belongs to this group. The yellow hairs of the scutellum and the all yellow legs help to distinguish it. The type is in the Canadian National Collection at Ottawa.

6. Epistrophe imperialis Cur. (Fig. 9)

Epistrophe imperialis Curran 1924, Ivans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 15 : 100, fig.

Face yellow, cheeks and oral margin black, male with black tarsi, female with hind tarsi black; venter of male with trian- gular black markings, absent in the female. Length 9 to 12 mm.

Male Face broad, shining yellow, only the very narrow orbits pollinose, pile black; tubercle prominent with a broad shallow depression above ; cheeks and oral margin to above the upper edge of mouth shining black ; pile yellow on the cheeks, black on the lower face; frontal triangle bluish to greenish black, usually pollinose, pile, heavy, black; vertical triangle very little longer than broad ; eyes bare ; antennae brownish, second and third segment often darkened above, arista brownish to black.

Thorax semi-shining black with a bronze reflection, pile yellowish ; scutellum yellow, the pile all black except for a few yellow hairs at the base. Legs yellowish, basal one-third to one- half of the four front femora, basal two-thirds of the third femora, and all the tarsi black ; hind tibiae brownish with a broad indefinite median band. Wings luteous, squamae yellow with brownish fringe, halteres yellow.

Abdomen semi-shining black ; the second tergite with a pair of suboval, widely separated yellow spots which attenuate to reach the anterior angles; band on third tergite biconcave in front and biconvex behind, reaching the base of the segment on the sides, and with a small projection in front in the middle ; band on fourth tergite similar ; apical margin of the fourth, more narrow margin of the fifth, and the basal corners of the fifth yellow. Venter yellow with large triangular black markings on sternites two and three ; fourth mostly entirely black.

Female paler ; pile of face may be almost all whitish ; front with a broad indistinct pollinose crossband which is very nar- rowly interrupted in the middle, the W broadly yellow; legs black only on the extreme bases of the femora, the hind tarsi, and the terminal segments of the other tarsi ; venter yellowish.

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Described from two males from Alberta (Bryant) and two females, one from Low Bush, Ont., (Bigelow) and the other from Alaska (Hine) compared with the allotype. One of the males is a slight variety; it lacks the ventral black markings and the bands on tergites three and four are interrupted.

This species has no real close relatives unless it is compared with those of the sodalis group, species which however have hairy eyes and interrupted abdominal bands. The head is typical of this group.

7. Epistrophe cinctellus (Zett.) (Fig. 10)

Scaeva cinctella Zetterstedt 1848, Dipt. Scancl. II : 742. Syrphus diversipes Macquart 1851, Dipt. Nouv. Supl. IV, Part 2: 155; Williston 1886, Syrph. N. A. 76. Epistrophe cinctellus Curran 1924, Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 15 : 97 (Syn.) .

Face yellow with the tubercle sometimes darkly opalescent, scutellum black-haired, abdomen with the bands on the third and fourth tergites continuous and reach the sides. Length 9 to 11 mm.

Male Face and cheeks yellow, with a slight indication of a darkened upper mouth edge and tubercle ; tubercle broad and rather prominent, devoid of pile and pollen; pile entirely yellow on both face and cheeks, sides of face covered broadly with yellowish pollen; frontal triangle mostly black with the sides more yellowish, covered with yellowish pollen except a large shining black spot just above the antennae, pile rather long and dark brown; antennae yellow with upper sides of the second and third segments dark brown to black, arista dark brown and decidedly pubescent ; occiput black with whitish pollen and yellowish pile ; vertical triangle black with brownish pile.

Thorax shining metallic green, pile yellow and the sides of the mesonotum and pleura with yellowish pollen; scutellum entirely yellow with long black pile. Legs yellow with black as follows: basal one-half of four front femora occasionally, but normally yellow, all but the basal one-half and tip of hind femora, the hind tibia and tarsi; pile mostly yellow except a few black hairs on the outside of the middle and hind femora, the short depressed hairs on the upper side of the hind tibia and tarsi dark brown. Wings hyaline, stigma dilutely yellow- ish ; squamae yellowish with yellow fringe, plumule light yellow.

Abdomen narrow, black with three broad yellow crossbands, only the first interrupted and all broadty reach the side mar-

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gins; in some specimens the black intervals reach obscurely forward on the extreme edge of the rolled side margins; first tergite shining with the anterior corners broadly yellow ; second semi-opaque with a pair of triangular spots, their inner ends rounded and well separated ; the band on the third well forward and almost touching the rear margin of the second tergite and deeply concave in the middle behind ; fourth similar except the band is almost on the anterior mar- gin ; posterior margin of fourth and all of the fifth except a median triangle yellowish; genitalia mostly yellowish. Pile mostly yellowish basally, blacker beyond the middle. Yenter yellow, pile long and yellow on first two sternites, shorter and black elsewhere.

Female Quite similar except the abdominal bands are nar- rower and the first tergite is entirely yellow, second with the spots quadrate and closer together, connected broadly with the yellow of the first tergite ; this leaves the segment with a broad inverted black T-shaped marking; the fifth and following ter- gites more broadly black. Legs more yellowish with only the apical half of the hind femora, the hind tibia obscurely, and the hind tarsi dark brown; the front is black but rather heavily coated with a yellowish pollen with exception of the large shining black spot above the antennae.

Described from numerous specimens from Germany, France, England, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, British Columbia, New Mexico, Minnesota, Maine, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.

This species is easily recognized by the pubescent arista, narrow abdomen, black haired scutellum, and yellowish coxae and tro- chanters. The shape of the spots on the second tergite of the female is also characteristic.

8. Epistrophe cinches (Fall.) (Fig. 11)

Scaeva cincta Fallen 1817, Dipt. Suec. Syrph. 45.

Syrphus cinctus Meigen 1822, Syst. Beschrib. Ill : 318 ; Yerrall 1901, Brit. Flies, Syrph. 394; Curran 1922, Can. Ent. 54: 117.

Face yellow, antennae largely orange, scutellum white haired, abdomen with the second and third bands continuous. Length 9 to 10.5 mm.

Male Face entirely yellow, tubercle inconspicuous, entirely coated with yellowish pollen, the pile yellow to occasionally brownish near the eyes; cheeks reddish, pile white; oral margin broadly brown; frontal triangle dull bronze to almost yellowish, covered with yellow pollen, the pile black ; antennae

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reddish to yellow, the third segment darker above, the arista brown to black, thickened on the basal third.

Thorax shining aeneous, the side margins often yellowish, pile all yellow to white; scutellum yellow, pile whitish. Legs yellowish brown, the basal one-half or less of the four front femora and all but the extreme base and broader tip of the hind femora brown to black. Wings hyaline.

Abdomen black ; first tergite shining aeneous ; second with a rather large pair of triangular spots, widely separated and scarcely reach the sides; third with a broad yellow band, its posterior margin decidedly concave, anterior margin nearly or touching the base of the segment, separated from the sides; fourth with a similar band, narrower, and occasionally inter- rupted in the middle and may reach the sides ; posterior margins of the fourth and fifth and the basal corners of the fifth yellow. Venter largely yellow, with a black band, situ- ated in the middle of the posterior half of sternites two to four.

Female Similar ; the cheeks paler ; front shining black with the sides yellow almost to the ocelli; pile of thorax paler, side margins usually more prominently yellow; legs paler; first tergite of abdomen yellow on the sides; spots on the second narrower and more elongate, their inner ends sharply pointed and very little separated; bands on three and four narrower, often notched behind.

Described from twenty specimens; Ontario, Alberta, Pennsyl- vania, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, Maryland, and Wisconsin.

It is readily told from E. cinctellus Zett. by the pollinose face and white hair on the scutellum. Occasionally the abdomen shrivels, becoming extremely narrow, causing a little confusion in identification.

9. Epistrophe diversifasciatus (Knab) (Pig. 12)

Syrphus diversifasciatus Knab 1914, Ins. Insc. Ment. 2: 151.

Syrphus rubripleuralis Curran 1921, Can. Ent. 53 : 173.

Epistrophe diversifasciatus Curran 1924, Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui. 15 : 97.

Abdomen without yellow spots on the second tergite, a con- tinuous band on the third and on the fourth tergites, thorax of the female with a pair of longitudinal white vittae. Length 9 to 11 mm.

Male Pace yellow with a median indefinite brown to black stripe, often bordered with red; heavily coated with white

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pollen ; sides of mouth shining black across to the eyes ; cheeks below reddish; pile of face and cheeks yellow, black near the eyes above; frontal triangle with a depressed arc just above the red and black W, yellow, bine black next to the eyes, polli- nose, pile black; antennae reddish yellow on the lower half, brownish black above, arista slender and of the same thick- ness nearly to the tip ; vertical triangle equilateral, the pile black; occiput narrow above, pile yellow, rather short, only a very few weak black cilia overhanging the eyes ; eyes bare.

Thorax brightly shining blue ; wdiite pollinose on the humeri, near the suture, and on the pleura ; pile entirely white except a few black hairs immediately in front of the postalar cal- losity; scutellum opalescent yellow, pile black. Legs reddish yellow; extreme bases of front femora, basal third of the middle femora, all but a very narrow preapical reddish ring on the hind femora, black; all the tibiae have a median dark ring which is more pronounced on the hind pair, and the tarsi are infuscated reddish brown; all the legs pollinose. Wings hyaline ; squamae yellow, the fringe yellow ; halteres black to brown.

Abdomen narrow ; first tergite shining black ; second shin- ing except for a broad black velvety band, no yellow spots; third and fourth similar except there is a complete yellow band in the velvety black area, this band is narrower at the middle than at the sides but does not reach the side margins; fifth wdth an elongate transverse velvety spot; the shining parts of the abdomen are very thinly pollinose. Venter shin- ing black, apices of the second and third sternites narrowly and the basal areas of sternites three and four broadly yellow- ish pollinose ; pile of abdomen all whitish, short, and sparse.

Female Very similar; the front has a wide pollinose band which is usually partially interrupted in the middle ; the thorax has two white pollinose longitudinal stripes on the dorsum; thej^ are widely separated and do not reach the front edge nor the scutellum ; the abdominal bands narrower and almost interrupted.

Described from the type specimens ; two males from Oregon (D. K. Frewing), seven females from Antelope Mts. in Oregon (D. K. Frewing), and one female, British Columbia. The Oregon specimens were taken in early July, 1932, at an elevation of 6,500 to 7,500 feet.

It is a remarkable species which is easily told by the abdominal markings. It has no near relatives but comes nearest to cinctus Fall.

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10. Epistoplie lineola (Zett.) (Fig. 13)

Scaeva lineola Zetterstedt 1843, Dipt. Scand. II : 714.

Syrphus lineola Verrall 1901, Brit. Flies Syrph. 359.

Antennae black, venter with triangular black markings, hind femora almost entirely black. Length about 8 mm.

Male Face yellow; a median stripe, oral margin broadly, and the cheeks black; all but the facial stripe covered with yellowish pollen, pile of face black, of cheeks yellowish; frontal triangle black, all but the W covered with yellow pollen, pile black; antennae and arista black.

Thorax semi-shining with a bronze or greenish hue, pile all yellow to light brown ; scutellum dull yellow, the pile black. Legs black or brown, the apical half of the four front femora, and all but a median ring on the four front tibiae yellow.

Abdomen semi-shining; second tergite with a pair of medi- anly situated yellow spots, narrower than the next band, same width as the third, and attenuated to reach the sides at the basal corners; band on third tergite rather broad, notched posteriorly, and attenuated on the sides but reaching to the edges; next band similar but narrower; apical margins of fourth and fifth and basal corners of fifth yellow. Venter yellow, each main sternite with a broad median triangular black spot, the vertex pointing cephalad.

Female very similar ; front heavily yellow pollinose but leaving a large inverted Y-shaped black shining spot ; abdomi- nal bands are straighter, not notched behind but reaching the sides distinctly.

One male, Washington (Aldrich) ; four females, Oregon (Beamer, Scullen) ; and one female, Colorado (Fluke).

This species is recognized by the black antennae and the tri- angular spots on the venter. E. vittiger Zett. a close relative which does not occur in this country, differs in having a brownish tinge to the wings and elongate spots on the venter. E. annulatus Zett. is also a close relative but as far as I know does not occur in North America.

11. Epistrophe conjunctus (Osb.) (Fig. 14)

Syrphus conjunctus Osburn 1908, Can. Ent. 40 : 7, fig.

Epistrophe melanderi Curran 1924, Kans. Univ. Sci. Bui.

15: 103.

Antennae reddish below, face with a black stripe, hind femora yellow at the base, second and third abdominal bands continuous and reach the side margins. Length 9 to 10 mm.

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Male Face yellow with a median black stripe which reaches only about half way between the tubercle and the base of the antennae, all but the stripe coated with greyish pollen and black to brown pile; cheeks brown, lightly pollinose, the pile yellow, oral margin, broadly