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ANNALS OF NATURAL HISTORY

OR,

MAGAZINE

OF

ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, AND GEOLOGY.

(being a continuation of the ‘magazine of zoology and botany,’ and sir w. j. hooker’s ‘botanical companion.’)

CONDUCTED BY

Sir W. JARDINE, Bart.— P. J. SELBY, Esq., Dr. JOHNSTON,

Sir W. J. HOOKER, Regius Professor of Botany,

AND

RICHARD TAYLOR, F.L.S.

YOL. II.

LONDON:

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR.

SOLD BY S. HIGHLEY J SIMPK1N AND MARSHALL; SHERWOOD AND CO.; W. WOOD, TAVISTOCK STREET J BAILLIERE, REGENT STREET, AND PARIS :

LIZARS, AND MACLACHLAN AND STEWART, EDINBURGH :

CURRY, DUBLIN : AND ASHER, BERLIN.

1839.

Omnes res creatae sunt divinse sapientiae et potentiae testes, divitiae felicitatis humanae: exharum usu bonitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata; avere eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta ; male doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.” Linn.

ADVERTISEMENT.

The Second Volume of the Annals of Natural History being now completed, the Editors have the satisfaction of being enabled to state, after the experience of a year, that the support which their Journal has received from the public is at the least sufficient to give the full assurance of its permanent establishment. That which above all af- fords them the greatest encouragement is the quality and quantity of the contributions with which they have been supplied by valuable correspondents diligently employed in the observation of Nature. Thus aided, they are gra- tified at finding that their labours have begun to engage attention, not only in their own, but also in other coun- tries. Already have some of the contents of this Journal been deemed worthy of being transferred into the pages of the Annales d’Histoire Naturelle ; whilst expressions of approbation and encouragement in the journals and correspondence of their contemporaries of Germany, Belgium, and the United States lead to the expectation that it will be increasingly useful as an established and

IV

ADVERTISEMENT.

ready medium of communication for the lovers of Na- tural History in all parts of the world.

The Editors must, however, be allowed earnestly to call upon all those to whom the success of such a Work may seem important, for their exertions to extend its sale, which though just sufficient to ensure permanence, and gradually on the increase, is still far short of that which its well-wishers might hope for. It can hardly be necessary for the Editors to state that their means of giving additional interest and value to these Annals, in various respects, must necessarily depend upon their having a greater sale than will merely cover the expenses of Publication.

P.S. It is hardly possible to speak of the difficulties with which Scientific Journals have to struggle in this country in comparison with all others, without adverting to the very heavy expense of Post- age, and expressing our regret and mortification that nothing has yet been done by Government to relieve Science and Literature among us from a burthen so enormously oppressive.

CONTENTS OF VOL. II.

NUMBER VII.

I. On some new forms of Arachnida. By W. S. MacLeay, A.M.,

F.L.S. (With Plates.) page 1

II. On Fishes new to Ireland. By William Thompson, Esq., Vice-

President of the Natural History Society of Belfast 14

III. Botanical Notes of a Tour in Ireland, with notices of new Bri- tish Plants. By J. Ball, Esq 28

IV. Some account of the genus Langsdorffia. By G. W. Arnott,

LL.D 36

V. On a new species of British Fish. By R. Parnell, M.D.,

F.R.S.E. (With a Plate.) 39

VI. On the British Shrews. By the Rev. L. Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. 43

VII. Florae Insularum Novae Zelandiae Precursor; or a Specimen of

the Botany of the Island of New Zealand. By Allan Cunningham, Esq. 44

VIII. An attempt to ascertain the Fauna of Shropshire and North

Wales. By T. C. Eyton, Esq., F.L.S 52

IX. Information respecting Botanical Travellers 57

New Boohs : leones Fungorum hucusque cognitorum, auctore A. C. J. Corda ; Commentationes de Leguminosarum Generibus, auctore Georgio Bentham ; Natural Arrangement and Relations of the Fa- mily of Flycatchers, by W. Swainson 61 64

Proceedings of the Geological Society ; Royal Society of Edinburgh ;

Royal Irish Academy; Zoological Society 64 77

Helminthology; Nest and Eggs of the Water Rail ; Walking of the

Seal; Hydra ; Meteorological Observations and Table 77 80

NUMBER VIII.

X. Observations on the Fur Seal of Commerce. By R. Hamilton,

Esq., F.R.S.E. (With a Plate.) 81

XI. On Ononis antiquorum. By Edward Forster, Esq., F.R.S.,

Vice-President of the Linnaean Society 95

XII. On the Genus Syngnathus. By Prof. B. Fries 96

XIII. Enumeration of the Plants collected by Rob. Schomburgk,

Esq., in British Guiana. By George Bentham, Esq., F.L.S 105

XIV. Illustrations of Indian Botany. By Drs. Wight and Arnott.

(With a Plate.) Ill

XV. Descriptions of new British Insects. By A. H. Haliday, Esq. 112

XVI. Communication respecting Fossil and Recent Infusoria. By

Prof. C. G. Ehrenberg 121

XVII. Florae Insularum Novae Zelandiae Precursor; or a Specimen of

the Botany of the Island of New Zealand. By Allan Cunningham, Esq. 125

New Boohs : Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, by A . Smith, M.D.; Wiegmann’s Archiv fur Naturgeschichte ; Natural History and Illustrations of Scottish Salmonidce, by Sir William Jardine, Bart. ; Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae, by H. Denny, Esq 132 139

Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh ; Zoological Society;

British Association 140—156

VI

CONTENTS.

Orchidacear, Collections of Scottish and American Mosses; Animal of FJanopcea australis ; Industry and Metamorphoses of the Odyneri; Lestris parasiticus ; Copper in Plants; Occurrence of Falco Islan- dicus in England; Meteorological Observations and Table page 157 160

NUMBER IX.

XVIII. On the Organic Origin of the Potstones or Paramoudras of Whitlingham, near Norwich. By Prof. C. G. Ehrenberg 161

XIX. On the Genera Pinus and Abies , with remarks on the Culti- vation of some Species. By Capt. S. E. Cook, R.N 163

XX. On the Metamorphoses of Crustacea. By Capt. Du Cane, R.N.

(With Plates.) 178

XXI. Notes on the Hairy-armed Bat ( Vespertilio Leisleri ). By

Thomas Paine, Esq., Jun. (With a Plate.) 181

XXII. Decscriptions of New British Insects. (By A. H. Haliday,

Esq.) 183

XXIII. On the Formation of Fibrous Cells or Tubes of the Liber in Plants. By Prof. J. Meyen 190

XXIV. On some new Organic Remains in the Flints of Chalk. By

the Rev. J. B. Reade, F.R.S. (With Plates.) 191

XXV. Descriptions of British Chalcidites. By Francis Walker,

F.L.S 198

XXVI. Florae Insularum Novae Zelandise Precursor ; or a Specimen

of the Botany of the Islands of New Zealand. By Allan Cunning- ham, Esq 205

New Boolcs : Plantae Javanicae rariores, quas in Insula Java legit et investigavit T. Horsfield, M.D. ; Monograph of the Caprimul - gidce, by John Gould, Esq., F.R.S. ; Wiegmann’s Archiv fur Na- turgeschichte 214 223

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Lon- don 226—233

Cardamine sylvatica ; Himalayan Gypaetos ; Occurrence of Nasturtium Anceps ; Action of free Carbonic Acid on the Nutrition of Plants ; Hybridity in Ferns; Affinities of the Ceratophyllacece\ Striped Hyaena ; on a representative of the order of Insectivorous Mam- malia; Caoutchouc in Plants; Obituary; Meteorological Obser- vations and Table 235 240

NUMBER X.

XXVII. Remarks on the Greenland and Iceland Falcons, showing

that they are distinct species. By J. Hancock, Esq. (With a Plate.) 241 XXVIII. On the Land and Freshwater Mollusca of Algiers and Bougia. By Edward Forbes, Esq. (With two Plates.) 250

XXIX. On the Habits of the King of the Vultures. By Robert

H. Schomburgk, Esq. 255

XXX. On the British species of Lotus. By Charles C. Babington,

M.A., F.L.S 260

XXXI. On Fishes ; containing a notice of one species new to the British, and of others to the Irish Fauna. By W. Thompson, Esq. ... 266

XXXII. On the Wild Cattle of Chillingliam Park. By L. Hind-

marsh, Esq 274

XXXIII. On some new or little known Mammalia. By J. E. Gray,

Esq., F.R.S. (With two Plates.) 284

XXXIV. Catalogue of the Slender-tongued Saurians, with Descrip- tions of many new Genera and Species. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. 287

CONTENTS.

Vll

New Books : The Honey-Bee : its Natural History, Physiology and Management, by E. Bevan, M.D. : Plantee Javanicse Rariores, quas in Insula Java 1802 1818, legit et investigavit T. Horsfield,

M.D page 293, 294

Proceedings of the Zoological Society 300

On the New Holland Gerboa Rat; new anomalous Reptile; on the Fur Seal of Commerce ; Habits of the Black Slug ; Regnlus mo- destus, Gould, a British Bird ; Meteorological Observations and Table 307—312

NUMBER XI.

XXXV. On the Writings of Goethe relative to Natural History.

By F. G. Pictet 313

XXXVI. Notes on some Shrews brought from Germany, including the description of an apparently New Species. By the Rev. L. Jenyns,

M.A 323

XXXVII. Descriptions of two New Orchideous Plants. By Sir W.

J. Hooker, F.R.S. (With two Plates.) 329

XXXVIII. Catalogue of the Slender-tongued Saurians, with Descrip- tions of many New Genera and Species. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. 331 XXXIX. On the Breeding of the Woodcock in Ireland, By W.

Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. Nat. Hist. Soc. Belfast 337

XL. On the Botany of the Channel Islands. By Charles C. Ba-

bington, M.A 348

XLI. Descriptions of British Clialcidites. Bv F. Walker, Esq. ... 350 XLII. Florae Insularum Novae Zelandiae Precursor; or a Specimen of the Botany of the Islands of New Zealand. By Allan Cunning- ham, Esq 356

XLIII. Information respecting Botanical Travellers 360

New Books : A Cornish Fauna, being a Compendium of the Natural History of the County, by Jonathan Couch, F.L.S. ; British Ento-

mology, vol. xv., by John Curtis, F.L.S. ; leones Plantarum, by SirW. J. Hooker, F.R.S. ; English Botany, by J. D. C. Sowerby ; Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie ; leones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis, by Dr. R. Wight ; A History of the Fishes of Madeira, by the Rev. R. T. Lowe 365 369

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Linnaean Society; Wernerian So- ciety; Zoological Society 370 380

Occurrence of Jackson’s Gull ( Lams Jacksonii ) ; Coronated Lump Fish, new to the British Fauna ; French Expedition of Discovery to the South Polar Seas ; Occurrence of Viola lactea ; Meteor- ological Observations and Table 381 384

NUMBER XII.

XLIV. On two species of a new South African Genus of the Na- tural Order Rhizanthece. By the Hon. W. H. Harvey. (With two

Plates.) 385

XLV. On the Synonymy of Passandra, with Descriptions of all the

old and of some new Species. By Edward Newman, F.L.S 388

XLVI. On the Existence of a third Tunic ; together with certain other peculiarities in the Structure of Pollen. By Herbert Giraud,

F.B.S.E. (With a Plate.) 399

XLVII. Observations on several British Fishes, including the de- scription of a New Species. By William Thompson, Esq., Vice- President of the Natural History Society of Belfast. (With a Plate.) . 402

vin

CONTENTS.

XLVIII. Miscellanea Zoologica : The British Apliroditacece. By

George Johnston, M.D. (With three Plates.) page 424

XLIX. Enumeration of the Plants collected by Robert Schomburgk,

Esq., in British Guiana. By George Bentham, Esq. F.L.S 441

L. Metamorphosis observed in Syngnathus lumbriciformis. By Prof.

B. Fries. (With a Plate.) 451

LI. Information respecting Botanical Travellers 455

NUMBER XIII. SUPPLEMENT.

Information respecting Botanical Travellers 457

New Books: Ornithological Biography, by John James Audubon, F.R.S. ; Genera Plantarum secundum Ordines naturales disposita, by S. Endlicher; leones Florae Germanicae, by L. Reichenbach ; Iconographia Generum Plantarum, by S. Endlicher ; leones Fungorum hucusque cognitorum, by A. C. J. Corda ; Linnsea ;

Manuals of British Insects, by J. F. Stephens 458 466

Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Wernerian Society 466 478

Fur Seal of commerce ; curious habit of Earth-worms ; Occurrence of Atriplex rosea ; Animal of Modiolus discrepans ; Vespertilio Leisleri ; Note respecting Mr. Babington’s paper on the Botany of the Channel Islands; Meteorological Observations and Table 478 482

Plates I. II.

III.

IY.

Y.

VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

XI. XII. XII.

XIII.

XIV. XV. XVII.

XVI. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII.

PLATES.

New forms of Arachnida.

Motella cimbria.

Fur Seal of Commerce.

Acalypha ciliata.

Metamorphosis of Crustacea.

Fossil Scales of Fish.

Infusoria in Flint.

Hairy-armed Bat; and Feathers of Falcons. Mollusca of Algiers.

Metamorphosis of Syngnathus lumbriciformis. Bos brachyceros.

Pteronura Sandbachii.

New Orchideous Plants.

British Fish.

Structure of Pollen.

New Rhizantheae.

British Aphroditacese.

ERRATA.

Page 123, line 16, for this is the character read this is a character.

134, line 2 from bottom, for Sterocles read Pterocles.

135, line 1, for Sternotherus Linneotus read Sternotherus sinualus.

138, line 5, for ciliatory read ciliary.

183, last line of text, for Platypalpus read Pachypalpus.

184, last line,/or § read If.

250, line3, after mandible insert, beginning afresh paragraph , Young or nest plumage, like,

&c.

263, 6 lines from bottom, for Beche read Beke.

268, line 13, for Willoughbigii read Willughbeii.

269, 270 : the paragraphs relative to Salmo ferox and Anguilla latirostris should have been

appended as notes after that on Coregonus Pollan.

_ 286, line 23, after Archipelago insert under the name of Cynogalc Bcnnettii.

ANNALS OF NATURAL HISTORY.

I. On some new Forms of Arachnida. By W. S, MacLeay, Esq., A.M., F.L.S., &c.

[With Plates.]

While i take shame to myself for never having fulfilled a promise made months ago to the c Magazine of Zoology and Botany/ I hope to make up for past indolence by contribu- ting my mite very frequently in future to its successor c The Annals of Natural History/ In the mean time I shall be glad if any interest is excited by the novelty of the forms here- after described. Four of them at least are very singular, and I have selected them as such out of a great variety of new forms in my cabinet.

M. Latreille has somewhere said that it would be difficult to discover a spider that cannot find its place in one of Walckenaer’s divisions. The truth howrever is that naturalists as yet know but little of Arachnida. Leon Dufour, Koch, and even the distinguished Walckenaer himself, are acquainted with but few extra-European forms compared with the im- mense variety that exist. The great majority of species are inhabitants of warm climates, and being in general extremely difficult to preserve, they are therefore rare in our collections. Yet no Annulosa are more curious in their structure or per- form more important functions in the ceconomy of nature. My custom, when I was abroad, was to make sketches of the spe- cies while yet alive ; which plan I recommend to naturalists as the only safe mode of studying these animals. The pencil is, for the entomologist, an instrument as necessary to wield as the pen.

I now place the following species before naturalists, in order to prove how little is as yet known of even that part of the class Arachnida which has been the most studied, namely, Spiders *.

* For instance, not any one part of the definition given by Mr. Kirby (Int. to Ent. vol. iv. p. 397) to the Araneidea is correct, except that the

Ann. Nat. Hist. Yol. 2. No.?. Sept. 1838. b

2 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

Four of these species will be sufficient to show that this inter- esting order has never yet been correctly marked out in any en- tomological work. I am not fond of giving insulated descrip- tions without an ulterior object in view ; and therefore I may as well state that my aim now is to show that a true spider may have a distinct head., that spiders may have an articulated thorax and abdomen, that spiders may have only two eyes, and that those which have eight may have them disposed in systems very different from any of the systems hitherto de- scribed,— finally, that although spiders in general have their labial palpi like feet, some species on the other hand may have their true feet like palpi and their labial palpi with- out ungues. Nay, were I to proceed to the other orders of Arachnida , I could exhibit facts equally extraordinary with respect to the whole class. For the present I shall merely say that my mode of distinguishing the order of Araneidea from other Arachnida is as follows :

Head rarely distinct from thorax.

Antennae of two joints, the last of which is a moveable corneous fang.

Labrum and Mandibles confluent with the tongue so as to form the oral orifice.

Maxillary palpi five-jointed.

Abdomen pedunculated ; furnished at the base with two or four respiratory apertures, and at the extremity with a spinning apparatus.

Feet with the coxae and tibiae each of two joints.

Genus NOPS.

Antennae * small, not advancing from under the head, the first

abdomen is furnished with a spinning apparatus. Nor are the four cha- racters given to the order by Walckenaer (Hist. Nat. des Ins. Apt. vol. i. p. 38) less liable to objection.

* Walckenaer asks what is the use of calling these organs chelicera or antennae. The answer is, that if we give them the old name mandibles,” we are decidedly wrong ; and that if we call them antennae, we refer them to those organs of Ptilota with which they correspond by analogy of position. If we dissect a large Nephila when alive, we can easily perceive that these organs are not in the mouth, but separated from it by the labrum, which is under them, and not above them as Walckenaer erroneously says. The fact is, that the part which is called by Walckenaer the bandeau” is not the true labrum, which is confluent with the mandibles, so as to form what the French call the languctte.”

Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida. 3

joint vertical^ short, subconical, with the second joint or fang small, curved, acute, and of the same colour as first joint.

Eyes only two, placed close together towards the fore part of cephalothorax.

Maxillce conspicuous, subquadrate, bent round the mentum and having their apex obliquely truncated.

Maxillary palpi having the first joint very short, the second joint obconical and elongate, the third short and bent, the fourth straight, obconical, and longer, the 'fifth or last thick, oval, and hirsute.

Labial palpi pediform with seven joints.

Mentum separated from the sternum by a transverse furrow ;

longer than broad with its frontal edge semicircular. Head not distinct from thorax. Cephalothorax subtranslucid with convex back without hair, obovate, narrowing gra- dually towards the front, which is rounded. Its tegument is subcrustaceous, while that of the abdomen is membra- naceous. This abdomen is a prolate spheroid terminated by six spinners of which two are inconspicuous and two are very prominent. Sternum twice as long as broad, oval, flat, and crustaceous. Feet like the labial palpi translucid ; the penultimate pair being the shortest. Un- gues short, pectinated at base. If there be a third unguis it is evanescent.

Sp. 1. Nops GUANABACOiE. Nops sanguineo-rubra, palpis maxillaribus articulo ultimo crasso obscuro hirsuto pilis canescentibus ; ceplialotho- racis macula oculifera parva nigra, pectore punctato piano ; abdomine obscuro hirto, fusulis pallidioribus ; pedibus versus apicem hirtis ; un- guibus nigris.

Long. 5 lin.

The trivial name of this remarkable spider will serve to com- memorate Guanabacoa, the place where first I found it, a place in which I long resided, devoting many delightful hours to the science of natural history. The genus Nops is easily known from all other spiders hitherto described by having only two eyes. These are round, black, and when alive very brilliant ; but they have no iris. In the species Nops Guanabacoce they are set in the middle of a black spot, which is on the fore part

b 2

4 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

of the egg-shaped cephalothorax. The sternum has vestiges of those eminences at the base of the feet which distinguish Ariadne and certain American forms of Dysdera . This spi- der has only two pulmonary pouches ; or if it has four, the additional ones are very small. It is common under stones in woods ; and occurs also, although more rarely, in houses. I have never seen it making a web, so that in this respect it agrees with some of the Drassi . In fact, it connects the Dys - derina , such as Savigny’s subgenus Ariadne, w ith certain Dras- sina , such as Savigny’s subgenus Lachesis.

The Dysderina form a curious group. In them not only have we the eyes varying in number, two, four, six, or eight, but the organs of manducation are in some species rudimentary, and in others excessively developed. I possess specimens of a translucid West Indian spider closely allied to Filistata , and having Mygalidous eyes situated on the balloon-shaped cepha- lothorax of a Nops. In these specimens the antennae, max- illae, &c. are so rudimentary and inconspicuous as would al- most make us doubt that the species can be an animal of prey, did we not find it making an irregular vreb in the cor- ners and crevices of houses. I call it Hemerachne tenuipes ; and on viewing it we can the better understand how Nops and Ariadne should have small antennae, while Dysdera erythrina has these organs so large.

I place Nops among the Dysderina , and not among the Dr as- sina , on account of its hard tegument ; for the Drassina in ge- neral have this very tender, and thus we see Clubiona and other comparatively delicate genera not only to form the food of Hymenoptera like Pelopceus , but even of Diptera . I have caught various species of Asilidce in the act of devouring these tender-skinned spiders, so that if certain spiders live on flies, there are also certain flies that feed on spiders. But to return to Nops Guanabacoce , the figure I give of it was draw n by Mr. Charles Curtis from a dried specimen in my cabinet, and coloured from a sketch made by me in Cuba of the live animal. I possess another species of the genus which has no black spot on the cephalothorax.

I take this opportunity of saying that I shall be glad to ex- change specimens of Nops for specimens of the genus Artema ,

Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida. 5

Walck., or Tessarops. Tessarops is a genus described by Rafinesque in the 6 Annales des Sc. Phys. de Bruxelles/ and to which some doubt is attached. Although I have no hesi- tation in admitting that spiders may occur with four eyes as well as with two, six, or eight ; still the magnified hind leg as figured by Rafinesque, and other circumstances connected with the peculiar character of the author, make me agree with Latreille in considering the existence of Tessarops maritima as extremely apocryphal. If any such being exists, I suspect it will be found to have been most incorrectly described. At all events, I cannot believe it properly placed by Latreille among the saltigrade spiders ; nor do I think it can on the other hand be very nearly allied to Nops. It seems, if I may be allowed to found a conjecture upon a figure so bad and a description so lame as those of Rafinesque, to be more closely connected with a singularly flat and minute hard-shelled six- eyed spider with a sessile abdomen, which is to be found in Cuba among old papers and in boxes of insects, and which passes off directly to the Acaridea or order of mites. I have called it Sclerachne ; for its tegument is even more hard in proportion to its size than that of the genus Gastracantha of Hahn, or any of the cancriform Epeiridce which form Wal- ckenaeEs genus Plectanus.

Plate I. Fig- 1. Nops Guanabacoce magnified.

Genus SELENOPS, Dvfour.

Antennae short, with the first joint subconical, and the second joint or fang hooked and sharp.

Eyes eight, six of which are placed in a semicircle with the arch convex forward, the two lateral ones being the largest and rather further removed from the intermediate four than these are from each other. The remaining two eyes, which are the least of all, are anterior, placed one on each angle of the head and nearly on the same line with the two middle ocelli of the semicircle.

Maxillae straight.

Maxillary palpi having the first joint very minute.

Labial palpi pediform and seven-jointed.

Mentum rounded at apex.

6 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

Head not distinct from thorax. Body very flat on the ground with the legs also extended flat on the same surface. Ab- domen soft with six fusi.

Of the genus Selenops Walckenaer gives three subgenera, Omalosoma , Apharteres , and Aissus. Near to the latter comes the following additional form of Selenops , which I shall call Hypoplatea .

Subgenus Hypoplatea.

Antennae with two teeth on the inner side of the groove of first joint.

Eyes , the two lateral ones of the arch rather oval in form. Maxillae subparallelogrammic, being obliquely truncated at the inside.

Maxillary palpi having their terminal joint the longest and crowned with an unguis.

Mentum semicircular.

Sternum suborbicular, but posteriorly emarginate.

Abdomen as wide as the cephalothorax.

Feet , the last pair but one the longest. Tarsi having a cushion surmounted by two very minute ungues.

Sp. 2. Hypoplatea celer. Hypoplatea flavescenti-grisea, abdomine fascia apicali nigra emarginata terminato ; ad basin tripunctato, punctis inter pilos ochreo-flavos nigris ; femoribus trifasciatis fascia media fulva utrinque nigra fasciis externis nigris; tibiis subfasciatis.

Long. 6^ lines.

This species is common in Cuba, darting in the rainy sea- son with extreme velocity over the plastered floors. Its body and legs are extended so flatly on the surface on which it moves, and moreover it has the Thomisidous faculty of run- ning backwards so strongly developed, that it is sure, along with various little lizards of the subgenus Sphaeriodactylus , to attract the attention of new comers, when, owing to certain qualms inside and torrents of rain outside, they shut them- selves up in their apartments to ponder gloomily over the novelties of a West Indian climate. I possess other species of the genus, but which belong to Walckenaer^s subgenus Aissus , and which are only to be found on the trunks of trees. These are seen like a ray of light to flash before the entomo- logist when they have been dislodged by his stripping off the

Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida. 7

bark in search of insects. The difference between the West Indian subgenera Aissus and Hypoplatea is that in the former the first pair of feet are the longest, whereas in Hypoplatea it is the penultimate pair; besides in Aissus the two large lateral ocelli are rounds in Hypoplatea they are oval. The mentum of Omalosoma, another subgenus of Selenops, is not truly se- micircular, nor does that kind of spider he so broad and flat on the ground as Hypoplatea . In general aspect Hypoplatea bears great resemblance to the genus Artamus of Koch, but differs from it altogether in the disposition of the eyes. Tha- natus, Koch, Artamus , Koch, Selenops , Duf., Philo dr omus, Koch, and Olios of Walckenaer (which last is identical with Kocffis Ocypete , a name that cannot stand as it has been else- where employed), all form a group of laterigrade spiders which perhaps are the swiftest of the whole order. They lie in wait for their prey like the saltigrade spiders and those other late- rigrade spiders of which Thomisus is the type ; but instead of leaping on their food like Thomisus , they catch it by their ex- treme velocity in running. They differ thus also from the Ly- cosina , which regularly hunt down their prey*; and I may take this opportunity of observing that Koch makes a gross mis- take in placing Walckenaer’s genus Ctenus among the Krah- henspinnen . Ctenus is not a laterigrade spider, but has all the habits and structure of the Wolfspinnen , as I know by per- sonal experience, the genus being very common in Cuba. Latreille is also wrong in calling the Wolfspinnen citigrades” par excellence , for they are far less swift than the present group.

I have introduced Hypoplatea in this place, not so much from the form being new to science, as in order to show the proper mode of considering the ocellar system of spiders when we are investigating their affinities. Thanatus and Ar- tamus have nearly the typical system of ocelli which prevails throughout the greatest part of the laterigrade spiders, of which it may be said that the arch of their eyes is typically convex outwards in opposition to that of the Drassina , where

* On this account Walckenaer is wrong in plaping the genus Oxyopes, Lat., or his own Sphasus among the Lycosina. I have always found these Oxyopes on syngenesious flowers sedentary like Thomisi. One large green species of Oxyopes is common in Cuba. I call it 0. jloricola.

8 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

the arch is typically convex inwards. Now the Thomisidce in general may be said to have their eight eyes disposed, four and four, in two concentric arches, of which the curve is con- vex in front. The four ocelli of the inner arch remain pretty nearly in all the Thomisidce at equal distances from each other : so also do the four of the outer or front arch in Artamus. In the nocturnal genus Olios , of which the type is the Aranea ve- natoria of Linnaeus and the manners very singular,* the con- vexity of the front arch is scarcely to be detected. In the aber- rant genus Thanatus , which is close to Ocyale and Dolomedes , it is more visible. In Philodromus of Koch we see the four front eyes going two and two to eaqh side of the head. In the genus Selenops the anomaly is at the extreme, so as to place the outer edge of what is ordinarily the front arch in the curve of the inner one and the other eyes a little lower. Thus in the subgenus Hypoplatea there are six ocelli in an arch convex outwards and two others in front, one at each corner of the head. The sketch of Hypoplatea celer was taken by me from the animal immediately after death.

Plate I. Fig. 2. Hypoplatea celer magnified, u, system of eyes ; /3, men- tum, maxilla and maxillary palpus ; y, sternum.

Genus DEINOPIS.

Antennae proceeding vertically downwards nearly in the same plane with the two large eyes. First joint subquadrate, the second joint or fang closes inwards.

Eyes eight, two dorsal and six frontal ; of these last two enor- mously large black, shining, spherical eyes occupy the half of the front. Linder these in the middle are two very minute ocelli ; and two others also small are placed be- low", one on each, outside of the large eyes, but not on the same vertical plane with them, for these last two small ocelli are somewdiat lateral.

Maxillce subquadrate, thick, and diverging from the men- tum.

Maxillary palpi with the first joint somewhat dilated ; the others cylindrical, nearly equal, excepting the last, w hich

* Walckenaer is in error when he says that this genus feeds on lizards. I believe that no spider lives on Vertebrata. Thomisus morbillosus of the Ap- pendix to King’s Survey of the Intratropical Coasts of New Holland belongs to the genus Olios.

Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida. 9

is subovate and terminates in a very minute unguis in the female.

Labial palpi seven-jointed and pediform ; but differ from the feet not only in being longer, but also in the joint cor- responding with the femora, which is stouter and emargi- nate at the base. This joint moreover is furnished nearly half-way on the inside with curved setae. The last joints of the labial palpi are also thicker than the corresponding tarsi of the true feet, and their basal joint is indistinct.

Mentum separated from the sternum by a transverse furrow, longer than broad, restricted in the middle, and having a semicircular apex.

Body slender, more than five times as long as broad. Head confluent with body. Cephalothorax convex in front, and as broad as abdomen, behind broader and depressed. The cephalothorax above presents an anterior elevation in the form of a pentagon, which is the true head.; the base of the pentagon being the front of this head, which is truncated in front, rounded off at the sides, and canali- culated longitudinally in the middle, while each of the lateral posterior angles of the pentagon supports a small black eye. The head from the base of the above-men- tioned pentagon is perpendicularly truncated, and thus presents a vertical face, in which are situated the other six eyes.

Sternum of three distinct segments.

Abdomen more than twice as long as the rest of the body, sub- cylindrical, only gradually tapering towards the point. Fusi inconspicuous. Feet slender, of which the first pair is longer than the third, and the third pair than the se- cond, all being long and slender, and having inconspi- cuous ungues.

Sp. 3. Deinopis Lamia. Deinopis villosa grisea ; capite medio lineis duabus ocliraceis obscuris ; sterno vitta nigra lata utrinque instructo ; abdomine punctis quatuor minutis nigrescentibus basalibus, macu- lisque duabus versus medium nigris ; pedibus maculis nigrescentibus variegatis.

Long. 5^- lines.

One of the distinguishing characteristics of the class Arach- nida is the disposition of the segments of their body to become

confluent. Even when, as for instance in the scorpions, the

10 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

segments are in general distinct, the head remains confluent with the thorax. In general the dorsal segments have this disposition to become confluent more strongly than those of the under side ; and thus in the cancriform Epeiridce we can detect the vestiges of articulation on the under side of the ab- domen, and in Deinopis on the under side of the cephalotho- rax. But what makes the present spider above all others in- teresting is the position of the eyes, w hich are remarkably un- equal in size. Twro of them are dorsal as usual, but the other six have a rather novel situation, not being visible when we look on the back of the insect. The head, being truncated in front, presents, like that of certain saltigrade spiders, or rather like certain Crustacea, a vertical face. Half of this face is oc- cupied by tvro enormous black eyes, set in blood-red circular rims*, wdiich touch each other laterally, and form irides that give our spider a most truculent aspect. This curious system of eyes may, however, be easily approximated to that of Ctenus , if we make no account of the truncation of the head. I found Deinopis , with the last-mentioned genus and Dolo- medes , under stones in the island of Cuba, It must be as- signed to the Wolfspinnen of Koch, but it is very unlike any of them hitherto known. My drawing was made from it while yet alive. I never found the male.

Plate II. Fig. 3. Deinopis Lamia, magnified, a,, front and vertical view of head; (B, sternum, mentum, maxillae, and a maxillary palpus.

Genus MYRMARACHNE.

Antennae twice as long as head, with the first joint thick, ex- serted, subtrigonal, plane above, and armed beneath and on the inside with six minute spines ; the second joint or fang long, slender, sinuated, and very sharp at the point.

Eyes eight, disposed as in Attus.

Maxillae short, straight, dilated and rounded off at their ex- tremity.

Maxillary palpi having their first joint small ; the second ob- conical, subtrigonal, and thrice as long as the third ; the third, fourth and fifth forming an obconical club, of which

* This fact proves the affinity of Deinopis to the Lycosina and Saltigrade spiders, where the two largest ocelli of the eight may be seen to have the pupil, as it were, surrounded by a coloured iris as in Vertebrata.

Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida. 1 1

the former is the shortest joint* and the last is by far the thickest* being truncated and concave at the apex.

Labial palpi pediform and 7-jointed* only the basal joint is evanescent.

Mentum oval* elongate.

Body with a subcrustaceous tegument. Head distinct from thorax though soldered to it ; quadrate and convex on the upper side* where the eyes are placed. Thorax ovate* narrower and longer than the head* and convex also on the upper side. Abdomen subarticulate* arched* pedun- culated at the base* swelling in the middle* with a con- vex back and dilated margined sides* and then termina- ting in a spindle ; the peduncle before mentioned being slender* cylindrical* and longer than the head. Feet are like the labial palpi* but the two first pair are somewhat shorter. Ungues not very conspicuous.

Sp. 4. Myrmarachne melanocephala. Myrmarachne capite nigro; an- tennarum articulo prirao rufo basi flavo ; palpis maxillaribus brunneo- nigris; thorace abclominisque pedunculo rufis ; abdomine nigro ; palpis labialibus pedibusque piceis.

Long. lin.

This handsome spider is a native of Bengal* and I present a figure of it* made by my friend Mr. C. Curtis* in order to show the relation which it bears to the American subgenus* called Myrmecium by Latreille. Myrmarachne is even still more like than Myrmecium to an ant or Mutilla . Its hard corneous en- velope* its distinct head* the long peduncle of its abdomen* and its insected body* all tend to aid the deception in the most striking manner. It evidently comes between Attus formicoides * Walck.* and Myrmecium rufum * Lat. It has the eyes of the former spider, except that the two smallest and middle ones are not placed at the margin of the head. With the latter spider it agrees in the head being even still more perfectly distinct from the thorax* as well as in the abdomen being subarticulate. Myrmecium * however* in its eyes* ap- proaches* as Walckenaer observes* to Dolomedes * while the antennae are short and of an ordinary form.

In Myrmarachne melanocephala the antennae are long* stout* and the first joint has a tubercle on the upper side of its apex* and its whole plane upper side is transversely striated. No-

12 Mr. MacLeay on some new forms of Arachnida.

thing is certainly known with respect to the manners of these curious spiders, but I suppose, from analogy, that they may eventually be found to feed on ants. Itahas been long known that the Volucellce in their larva state live in the nests of the Bombi they so much resemble ; and I have discovered that the larvae of those tropical Bombylii which have such a bee- like form live on the larvae of the bees they so strikingly repre- sent. Perhaps, in like manner, the object of nature in giving such a striking form to this spider is to deceive the ants on which they prey.

Attus of Walckenaer is a very good subgenus, if the name be confined to such ant-like insects as Aranea formicaria of DeGeer, and Attus formicoides of Walckenaer. Latreille’s name, Salticus, ought therefore to be confined to those salti- grade spiders of which the Aranea scenica of Linnaeus may be considered the type. This, however, is an use of the two ge- neric names the very reverse of that which is proposed by Sundevall in his description of the spiders of Sweden.

Plate I. Fig. 4. Myrmarachne melanocephala , magnified, a, system of eyes ; /3, antenna ; y, abdomen viewed laterally.

Genus OTIOTHOPS.